JCB’s world leading 3CX and 4CX backhoe loaders will be the company’s first products sold in Europe to adopt its innovative Tier 4 Final/Stage IV engine strategy.

The introduction of the new engine will build on the success of the highly efficient JCB Ecomax T4i engine that is in use in many JCB machines. Ecomax engines producing more than 75hp (55kW) will meet stringent Tier 4 Final/Stage IV emissions legislation using a compact, highly efficient SCR system for NOx reduction, while engines with less than 74hp (55kW) require no after-treatment to meet the new regulations thanks to innovative, efficient combustion technology that deals with emissions within the engine combustion chamber.

JCB’s recalibration of the Ecomax engine achieves the new engine out emissions requirement and results in a further 5% fuel saving. A compact selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit with a Urea-based additive will be used on engines above 74hp (55kW) and will be incorporated into a single exhaust muffler, in many cases replacing the existing exhaust. This provides a ‘one can’ solution, delivering the same compact overall dimensions for machine designers.

The SCR system will use just a 2-3% ratio of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) to fuel, as the engine is already providing exceptionally clean exhaust gases. JCB has engineered a space-efficient mixing system for the SCR that offers a reduced exhaust flow distance between the engine and the catalyst. This SCR solution has been specifically designed for off-highway use and has been thoroughly tested over many hours of use on real sites.

With this compact system, the Ecomax T4F/Stage IV engine delivers an engine package that, unlike many competitors, can be installed in existing machinery without bulky alterations to bodywork. This ensures that JCB machines retain their excellent all-round visibility and ease of serviceability. As with all Tier 4 Final/Stage IV engines, low-ash lubricating oils will be required, along with a DEF filter. However there will be no additional intrusive maintenance required on the JCB Ecomax engine, including no costly cleaning or replacement of exhaust filters.

JCB’s award-winning 3CX and 4CX backhoe loaders will be the first machines in the company’s wide range of equipment to feature the latest Ecomax T4F/Stage IV engines. The 74hp (55kW) 3CX will require no after-treatment at all, with no costly Diesel Particulate Filter, no SCR and no requirement for DEF. Both 3CX and 4CX models equipped with the 98hp (68kW) and 109hp (81kW) engines will require no DPF, but will be equipped with the one-can SCR solution, using DEF and running on an API CJ-4 engine oil. As the single can exhaust replaces the existing muffler there is no requirement to raise the engine cover level or alter the machine’s bodywork, ensuring maximum visibility is retained.

A 20-litre DEF tank is installed on the opposite side of the machine to the diesel tank, equipped with a lockable cap and a blue key. The tank, which can be refilled from ground level, is fitted with a smaller opening to ensure that a diesel nozzle cannot be inserted. The machine is equipped with an additional filter that has 1,000 hour service intervals. The DEF supply lines are heated to allow the machines to work in colder climates.

A DEF level indicator has been added to the dash console in the cab, with a driver warning system alerting the operator when the DEF level falls below 20%. The driver receives progressive warnings as the DEF fluid level reduces. In the event that the level falls too low, the machine will revert to a limp home mode to allow the operator to move to a safe position for refilling. Low level messages are also transmitted to the machine owner through JCB’s LiveLink telematic system.

As with the Stage IIIB/Tier 4 Interim Ecomax engine, it will be possible to de-emissionise the Tier 4 Final/Stage IV range, to allow machines to be re-sold in less regulated territories. All JCB dealers worldwide will have the technology to remove the SCR kit, reduce the fuel injection pressures and recalibrate the engine control system to de-emissionise the Ecomax engines, changes which have to be made outside of regulated territories. A lubricity dosing filter may be required in some countries depending on the quality of local fuel.

“We have continued to use innovative in-cylinder technology to reduce exhaust emissions within the JCB Ecomax engine, rather than relying on extensive after-treatment,” said Alan Tolley, Director of Engine Programmes at JCB Power Systems. “Through recalibration, and the addition of our one can SCR solution, we have delivered a range of technologically advanced engines that meet the requirements of Tier 4 Final/Stage IV within existing packaging requirements.
“Our customers will also welcome the fact that these engines deliver up to 5% higher fuel efficiency, reducing running costs and boosting productivity. Plus there will be no concerns in the used equipment market, maintaining the strong residual values enjoyed by all JCB equipment.”